By: Rodrigo B. Niango Jr.
Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila – Philippine Institute of Certified Public Accountant
MBA-TEP Batch 9 (Subject: Organizational Behavior)
May 02, 2018
Organizational Behavior is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness. Organizational Behavior studies three determinants of behavior in organizations: individuals, groups, and structure. In addition, OB applies the knowledge gained about individuals, groups, and the effect of structure on behavior in order to make organizations work more effectively. (Stephen Robbins, Organizational Behavior 9th edition, 2002,page 6)
Organizational behavior is the scientific study on how humans behave within an organization. This is where an individual with a distinct personality, gift, intelligence and skills go to a group, and mingle with each other in order to attain their individual goal and the organization’s goal. This where the behavior of each individual within a group are being analyze in order to utilize each uniqueness effectively for the benefit of the organization.
Organizational Behavior can be expressed as an interdisciplinary field of study as it put together the facts from a variety of relevant fields.
According to Stephen Robbins (2002) organizational behavior is an applied behavioral science that is built upon contributions from a number of behavioral disciplines. The predominant areas are psychology, sociology, social, psychology, anthropology, and political science. As we shall learn, psychology’s contributions have been mainly at the individual or micro level of analysis, while the other four disciplines have contributed to our understanding of macro concepts such as group processes and organization.
Psychology usually related to the study of human behavior, with qualities of the person and association of small social groups. The main center of consideration is on the person as a whole. Organizational Behavior discovers a great deal in subjects like personality, perception, emotions, attitude, learning, values, motivation, and job satisfaction etc. from the field of psychology.
Sociologists deal with the learning of social behavior, relationships among social groups and societies, and the maintenance of order. The main consideration is on the social system. Organizational Behavior has developed by dealing with various issues from sociology such as group dynamics, communication, leadership, organizational structures, formal and informal organizations, organizational change and development etc.
Social Psychology studies interpersonal actions. The social psychologists are concerned with inter group association, group decision making, effect of change on individual, individual’s responsiveness to change, and integration of individual needs with group activities.
Anthropology studies analyze the science of mankind and the study of human behavior. Issues like, individual culture, organizational culture, organizational environment, comparative values, comparative attitudes, cross-cultural analysis, are some of the familiar fields of anthropology and OB. OB is usually concerned with one of the main issues seeking immediate attention out of cultural system, the beliefs, customs, ideas and values within a group or society, and the contrast between the behaviors among different cultures. People try to depend on their culture to give them security and stability, and they can experience bad response to strange situation.
Political Science as a theme has various components, which directly influence human behavior in organizations as politics leads every organization. Many subjects of attention are directly connected to OB they are, power and politics, networking, political manipulation, conflict resolution, coalition, and self-interest enhancement.
Economic environment controls organizational climate. OB has refined to a great extent from various economic factors such as labor market dynamics, cost-benefit analysis, marginal utility analysis, human resource planning, forecasting, and decision making.
Industrial Engineering area has put in a lot of effort in the area of man-machine relationship through time and motion study, work measurement, work flow analysis, job design, and compensation management. All these areas have affected OB to some extent.
Medicines is one of the latest fields which is related to the field of OB. There are various common issues which are related to both the areas i.e. medicine and OB they are stress, tension and depression.
Semantics facilitates the study of relations within the organization. Misinterpreted communication and lack of communication leads to various behavior related problems in the organization. Therefore, adequate and effective communication is very essential for organizational effectiveness.
Managers get things done through other people. They make decisions, allocate resources, and direct the activities of others to attain goals. Managers do their work in an organization. This is a consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals. (Stephen Robbins, Organizational Behavior 9th edition, 2002,page 2)
Leadership and managerial skills if being educated by the science of organizational behavior may have positive impact within the organization. Managing and leading the people especially in maximizing them may lead towards to an effective output and goals of the organization. Different people with different values, background and personality may make or break the organization that is why the science behind the organizational behavior is needed.
Contemporary models of organizational theory focus on one or more of these disciplines. The different contemporary models are population ecology, resource dependence, contingency, transaction cost and institutional model.
Population ecology organizational theory model focuses on the impacts of dynamic changes of phenomenon related to the birth and deaths of organizations and organizational forms. The study of population ecology is done over a long period of time. Most organizations have static structures that hinder adaptation to changes. The organizations with inflexible models of organizations are then more likely to crumble and cease to exist while more new flexible businesses , better adapted to change, will startup and strive. In population ecology, success then depends on an intrinsic ability to adapt in a changing environment.
The resource dependence model examines influence of power in the relation of exchange resources. In the resource dependence theory, organizational success happens when a business maximizes its power and influences in gaining the resources needed for the businesses’ survival. In this theory model, organizations that lack in resources will seek to become allies of other organizations who have more resources. The dependence relationship means that organizations become reliable on each other’s capacity to have access to necessary resources, and the power is given to the organization who possesses the highest amount of resources. The resource dependence organizational model theory originally discussed the relationship between organizations, but it also applies to the relationships between groups of a same organization.
Contingency organizational theory is actually a amalgamation of behavioral theories which contend that there isn’t one best way of organizing or leading an organization, but that other internal and external constraints help determine which organization and leadership types are best for the business. The four core elements of contingency theory are that there is not a universal way to manage, an organization’s design must fit with its environment, effective organization also depends on its fit with its subsystems and organizational needs are best satisfied when all previous three elements are met to achieve the main objectives of its work groups.
Transaction costs organizational systems takes into account social-psychological dimensions that are not considered in the costing of the production of goods or services. Transaction costs are difficult to measure and rely on human activities, but understanding the impact of human psychology in relation to its the organization’s operations is crucial to gain a full picture of an organization’s economics.
Finally, the institutional organizational theory model studies institutions’ structures and processes in relation to the functions of global governance. According to the model, institutional-based organizations should innovate in their structures, posses a participatory structure encouraging public and private participation, have strong trans-national coordination capacities, and establish dispute resolution mechanisms. Examples of organization that follow the institutional model include the World Trade Organization, International Labor Organization, The World Health Organization and the United Nations Environment Program. (Rochon, Marie-Pier. 2017, September 26. What Are the Five Contemporary Organizational Theory Models? Bizfluent., Retrieved from https://bizfluent.com/info-8544476-five-contemporary-organizational-theory-models.html)